2016年畢業演講:導演斯皮爾伯格哈佛畢業演講

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2016-5-30 16:29

2016年畢業演講:導演斯皮爾伯格哈佛大學畢業演講

【演講者簡介】
史蒂文·斯皮爾伯格于1946年12月18日生于美國俄亥俄州的辛辛那提市,猶太人血統,電影導演、編劇和電影制作人。
史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格的第一部电影是在亚利桑那州斯考茨德尔的一家旅馆中拍摄的。13岁时,斯皮尔伯格拍摄了一部战争电影《无处容身》在“峡谷影展“中获奖。1971年,斯皮尔伯格导演了他的第一部电视片《决斗》。1975年拍摄了电影《大白鲨》,1982年的电影《E.T.》 使史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格首次获得当年的奥斯卡最佳导演奖提名。1993年史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格执导的《侏罗纪公园》上映。同年凭借电影《辛德勒的名单》获得奥斯卡最佳影片、 最佳导演等多项大奖;1999年再次凭借电影 《拯救大兵瑞恩》获得第71届奥斯卡最佳导演等多项大奖,2009年获得第66届美国电影电视金球奖终身成就奖[1] 。2013年《时代》杂志将他列入世纪百大最重要的人物的一员。
【演講全文】
Thank you, thank you, President Faust, and Paul Choi, thank you so much.
It’s an honor and a thrill to address this group of distinguished alumni and supportive friends and cavelling parents. We’ve all gathered to share in the joy of this day, so please join me in congratulating Harvard’s Class of 2016.
I can remember my own college graduation, which is easy, since it was only 14 years ago. How many of you took 37 years to graduate? Because, like most of you, I began college in my teens, but sophomore year, I was offered my dream job at Universal Studios, so I dropped out. I told my parents if my movie career didn’t go well, I’d re-enroll.
It went all right.
But eventually, I returned for one big reason. Most people go to college for an education, and some go for their parents, but I went for my kids. I’m the father of seven, and I kept insisting on the importance of going to college, but I hadn’t walked the walk. So, in my fifties, I re-enrolled at Cal State — Long Beach, and I earned my degree.
I just have to add: It helped that they gave me course credit in paleontology for the work I did on Jurassic Park. That’s three units for Jurassic Park, thank you.
Well I left college because I knew exactly what I wanted to do, and some of you know, too — but some of you don’t. Or maybe you thought you knew but are now questioning that choice. Maybe you’re sitting there trying to figure out how to tell your parents that you want to be a doctor and not a comedy writer.
Well, what you choose to do next is what we call in the movies the ‘character-defining moment.’ Now, these are moments you’re very familiar with, like in the last Star Wars: The Force Awakens, when Rey realizes the force is with her. Or Indiana Jones choosing mission over fear by jumping over a pile of snakes.
Now in a two-hour movie, you get a handful of character-defining moments, but in real life, you face them every day. Life is one strong, long string of character-defining moments. And I was lucky that at 18 I knew what I exactly wanted to do. But I didn’t know who I was. How could I? And how could any of us? Because for the first 25 years of our lives, we are trained to listen to voices that are not our own. Parents and professors fill our heads with wisdom and information, and then employers and mentors take their place and explain how this world really works.
And usually these voices of authority make sense, but sometimes, doubt starts to creep into our heads and into our hearts. And even when we think, ‘that’s not quite how I see the world,’ it’s kind of easier to just to nod in agreement and go along, and for a while, I let that going along define my character. Because I was repressing my own point of view, because like in that Nilsson song, ‘Everybody was talkin’ at me, so I couldn’t hear the echoes of my mind.’
And at first, the internal voice I needed to listen to was hardly audible, and it was hardly noticeable — kind of like me in high school. But then I started paying more attention, and my intuition kicked in.
And I want to be clear that your intuition is different from your conscience. They work in tandem, but here’s the distinction: Your conscience shouts, ‘here’s what you should do,’ while your intuition whispers, ‘here’s what you could do.’ Listen to that voice that tells you what you could do. Nothing will define your character more than that.
Because once I turned to my intuition, and I tuned into it, certain projects began to pull me into them, and others, I turned away from.
And up until the 1980s, my movies were mostly, I guess what you could call ‘escapist.’ And I don’t dismiss any of these movies — not even 1941. Not even that one. And many of these early films reflected the values that I cared deeply about, and I still do. But I was in a celluloid bubble, because I’d cut my education short, my worldview was limited to what I could dream up in my head, not what the world could teach me.
But then I directed The Color Purple. And this one film opened my eyes to experiences that I never could have imagined, and yet were all too real. This story was filled with deep pain and deeper truths, like when Shug Avery says, ‘Everything wants to be loved.’ My gut, which was my intuition, told me that more people needed to meet these characters and experience these truths. And while making that film, I realized that a movie could also be a mission.
I hope all of you find that sense of mission. Don’t turn away from what’s painful. Examine it. Challenge it.
My job is to create a world that lasts two hours. Your job is to create a world that lasts forever. You are the future innovators, motivators, leaders and caretakers.
And the way you create a better future is by studying the past. Jurassic Park writer Michael Crichton, who graduated from both this college and this medical school, liked to quote a favorite professor of his who said that if you didn’t know history, you didn’t know anything. You were a leaf that didn’t know it was part of a tree. So history majors: Good choice, you’re in great shape…Not in the job market, but culturally.
The rest of us have to make a little effort. Social media that we’re inundated and swarmed with is about the here and now. But I’ve been fighting and fighting inside my own family to get all my kids to look behind them, to look at what already has happened. Because to understand who they are is to understand who were were, and who their grandparents were, and then, what this country was like when they emigrated here. We are a nation of immigrants — at least for now.
So to me, this means we all have to tell our own stories. We have so many stories to tell. Talk to your parents and your grandparents, if you can, and ask them about their stories. And I promise you, like I have promised my kids, you will not be bored.
And that’s why I so often make movies based on real-life events. I look to history not to be didactic, ‘cause that’s just a bonus, but I look because the past is filled with the greatest stories that have ever been told. Heroes and villains are not literary constructs, but they’re at the heart of all history.
And again, this is why it’s so important to listen to your internal whisper. It’s the same one that compelled Abraham Lincoln and Oskar Schindler to make the correct moral choices. In your defining moments, do not let your morals be swayed by convenience or expediency. Sticking to your character requires a lot of courage. And to be courageous, you’re going to need a lot of support.
And if you’re lucky, you have parents like mine. I consider my mom my lucky charm. And when I was 12 years old, my father handed me a movie camera, the tool that allowed me to make sense of this world. And I am so grateful to him for that. And I am grateful that he’s here at Harvard, sitting right down there.
My dad is 99 years old, which means he’s only one year younger than Widener Library. But unlike Widener, he’s had zero cosmetic work. And dad, there’s a lady behind you, also 99, and I’ll introduce you after this is over, okay?
But look, if your family’s not always available, there’s backup. Near the end of It’s a Wonderful Life — you remember that movie, It’s a Wonderful Life? Clarence the Angel inscribes a book with this: “No man is a failure who has friends.“ And I hope you hang on to the friendships you’ve made here at Harvard. And among your friends, I hope you find someone you want to share your life with. I imagine some of you in this yard may be a tad cynical, but I want to be unapologetically sentimental. I spoke about the importance of intuition and how there’s no greater voice to follow. That is, until you meet the love of your life. And this is what happened when I met and married Kate, and that became the greatest character-defining moment of my life.
Love, support, courage, intuition. All of these things are in your hero’s quiver, but still, a hero needs one more thing: A hero needs a villain to vanquish. And you’re all in luck. This world is full of monsters. And there’s racism, homophobia, ethnic hatred, class hatred, there’s political hatred, and there’s religious hatred.
As a kid, I was bullied — for being Jewish. This was upsetting, but compared to what my parents and grandparents had faced, it felt tame. Because we truly believed that anti-Semitism was fading. And we were wrong. Over the last two years, nearly 20,000 Jews have left Europe to find higher ground. And earlier this year, I was at the Israeli embassy when President Obama stated the sad truth. He said: ‘We must confront the reality that around the world, anti-Semitism is on the rise. We cannot deny it.’
My own desire to confront that reality compelled me to start, in 1994, the Shoah Foundation. And since then, we’ve spoken to over 53,000 Holocaust survivors and witnesses in 63 countries and taken all their video testimonies. And we’re now gathering testimonies from genocides in Rwanda, Cambodia, Armenia and Nanking. Because we must never forget that the inconceivable doesn’t happen — it happens frequently. Atrocities are happening right now. And so we wonder not just, ‘When will this hatred end?’ but, ‘How did it begin?’
Now, I don’t have to tell a crowd of Red Sox fans that we are wired for tribalism. But beyond rooting for the home team, tribalism has a much darker side. Instinctively and maybe even genetically, we divide the world into ‘us’ and ‘them.’ So the burning question must be: How do all of us together find the ‘we?’ How do we do that? There’s still so much work to be done, and sometimes I feel the work hasn’t even begun. And it’s not just anti-Semitism that’s surging — Islamophobia’s on the rise, too. Because there’s no difference between anyone who is discriminated against, whether it’s the Muslims, or the Jews, or minorities on the border states, or the LGBT community — it is all big one hate.
And to me, and, I think, to all of you, the only answer to more hate is more humanity. We gotta repair — we have to replace fear with curiosity. ‘Us’ and ‘them’ — we’ll find the ‘we’ by connecting with each other. And by believing that we’re members of the same tribe. And by feeling empathy for every soul — even Yalies.
My son graduated from Yale, thank you …
But make sure this empathy isn’t just something that you feel. Make it something you act upon. That means vote. Peaceably protest. Speak up for those who can’t and speak up for those who may be shouting but aren’t being hard. Let your conscience shout as loud as it wants if you’re using it in the service of others.
And as an example of action in service of others, you need to look no further than this Hollywood-worthy backdrop of Memorial Church. Its south wall bears the names of Harvard alumni — like President Faust has already mentioned — students and faculty members, who gave their lives in World War II. All told, 697 souls, who once tread the ground where stand now, were lost. And at a service in this church in late 1945, Harvard President James Conant — which President Faust also mentioned — honored the brave and called upon the community to ‘reflect the radiance of their deeds.’
Seventy years later, this message still holds true. Because their sacrifice is not a debt that can be repaid in a single generation. It must be repaid with every generation. Just as we must never forget the atrocities, we must never forget those who fought for freedom. So as you leave this college and head out into the world, continue please to ‘reflect the radiance of their deeds,’ or as Captain Miller in Saving Private Ryan would say, “Earn this.“
And please stay connected. Please never lose eye contact. This may not be a lesson you want to hear from a person who creates media, but we are spending more time looking down at our devices than we are looking in each other’s eyes. So, forgive me, but let’s start right now. Everyone here, please find someone’s eyes to look into. Students, and alumni and you too, President Faust, all of you, turn to someone you don’t know or don’t know very well. They may be standing behind you, or a couple of rows ahead. Just let your eyes meet. That’s it. That emotion you’re feeling is our shared humanity mixed in with a little social discomfort.
But, if you remember nothing else from today, I hope you remember this moment of human connection. And I hope you all had a lot of that over the past four years. Because today you start down the path of becoming the generation on which the next generation stands. And I’ve imagined many possible futures in my films, but you will determine the actual future. And I hope that it’s filled with justice and peace.
And finally, I wish you all a true, Hollywood-style happy ending. I hope you outrun the T. rex, catch the criminal and for your parents’ sake, maybe every now and then, just like E.T.: Go home. Thank you.

#p#副標題#e#

我記得我自己的大學畢業典禮,這不難,因爲就是14年以前的事情。你們當中的多少人花了37年才畢業?因爲就像你們中的多數人,我在十幾歲時進入大學,但是大二的時候我從環球影城獲得了我的夢想工作,所以我休學了。我跟我的父母說,如果我的電影事業不順,我會重新上學的。
我的電影事業發展得還行。(同學們大笑了~)
但是我最後還是回到了學校,主要爲了一個原因。很多人爲了獲得教育去上大學,有的人爲了父母上大學,而我是爲了我的孩子去上的。我是7個孩子的爸爸,我總是不斷強調上大學的重要性,可我自己都沒上過。所以在我50多歲的時候,我重新進入加州州立大學長灘分校,獲得了學位。
我必須補充一點,我獲得學位的一個原因是學校爲我在《侏羅紀公園》裏所做的給我了考古學學分。《侏羅紀公園》換得了3個學分,非常感謝。(同學們又大笑了~)
我離開大學是因爲我很清楚地知道我想要做什麽。你們中的一些人也知道,但是有些人還沒弄明白。或者你以爲你知道,但是現在開始質疑這個決定。或者你坐在這裏,試著想要怎麽告訴你的父母,你想要成爲一名醫生,而不是喜劇編劇。(同學們又又大笑了~)
你接下來要做的事情,在我們這行叫做“定義角色的時刻“。這些是你非常熟悉的場景,例如在最近的一部《星球大戰:原力覺醒》裏女主角Rey發現自己擁有原力的一刻。或者在《奪寶奇兵》裏印第安納·瓊斯選擇戰勝恐懼跳過蛇堆,繼續任務的時候。
一部兩小時的電影裏有幾個定義角色的時刻,但是在真實的生活中,你每天都在面對這樣的時刻。生活就是一長串強大的定義角色的時刻。我非常幸運在18歲時就知道我想要做什麽。但是我並不知道我是誰。我怎麽可能知道呢?我們中任何人都不知道。因爲在生命的頭一個25年裏,我們被訓練去傾聽除自己以外的人的聲音。父母和教授們把智慧和信息塞進我們的腦袋,然後換上雇主和導師來向我們解釋這個世界到底是怎麽一回事。
通常這些權威人物的聲音是有道理的,但是有些時候,質疑會爬進你的腦子和心裏。就算我們覺得“這好像不太是我看世界的方式“,點頭表示贊同也是更容易做的事情,有段時間我就讓“附和“定義了我。因爲我壓抑了自己的想法,因爲就像尼爾森歌裏唱的一樣:“每個人都在對我說話,所以我聽不見我思考的回聲。“
一開始,我需要傾聽的內心的聲音幾乎一聲不響,也難以察覺——就像高中時的我。但是之後我開始更加注意這些聲音,然後我的直覺開始工作。
我想告訴你,你的直覺和你的良心是兩個不同的事物。它們會協力工作,但這是它們的不同:你的良心會呼喊“你應當去做這個“,而你的直覺只會低語“你是可以這樣做的“。傾聽那個告訴你你能怎麽去做的聲音。沒有什麽比這更能定義你的角色的了。
……
当我执导《紫色》的时候,这部电影让我体验了我从未想象过,却如此真实的一些感受。这个故事充满了深深的痛苦和更深一部的真理,就像Shug Avery说“任何一个东西都想被爱着。“我的直觉告诉我,更多的人需要来认识这样的角色,来体验这样的真理。在导演这部电影时,我突然发现一部电影也可以是一个使命。
我希望你們所有人都能找到這樣的使命感。不要避讓讓你痛苦的事情。研究它、挑戰它。
我的工作是要構築一個維持兩小時的世界。你的工作是要建一個會一直持續的世界。你們是未來的創新者、激勵者、領導者和守護者。
你们要研究过去,才能建设一个更好的未来。《侏罗纪公园》的编剧Michael Crichton是从这所大学的医学院毕业的。他喜欢引用他最喜欢的一位教授的话,他说如果你不懂得历史,那么你一无所知。你是一片树叶,不知道自己只是树的一部分。所以主修历史的同学们,很棒的选择,你的前景不错…不是说在招聘市场上啊,从文化上来说的话。
我們剩下的其它人就需要努點力了。淹沒和吞噬我們的社交媒體只關乎當下。但是我自己和家人都不斷嘗試,讓我所有的孩子們能透過這些,去看過去發生過的事情。因爲要知道他們是誰,就要去理解他們曾經是誰,他們的祖父母是誰,以及當他們移民到這個國家來的時候,這個國家到底是什麽樣。我們是一個移民國家——至少現在還是。
……這就是爲什麽我經常就會導演由真實事件改編的電影。我回顧曆史並不是爲了說教,這是額外的獎勵,我回顧曆史因爲過去充滿了那些從來沒被講述出來的偉大故事。英雄和壞人不是文學塑造出來的,而是在一切曆史的最中心。
所以,這就是爲什麽傾聽你內心的低語非常重要。這與驅使亞伯拉罕·林肯和奧斯卡·辛德勒去做正確的道德選擇的東西是一樣的。在屬于你的“定義角色的時刻“裏,不要讓你的道德被便利或者私利左右。忠于你的角色需要很多的勇氣,變得勇敢,你又需要很多的支持。
但是,如果你的家人並不總是支持你,還有B計劃。在《生活多美好》劇終前,天使Clarence在一本書上題寫了這句話:“有朋友的人,不會是生活的失敗者。“我希望你們會珍惜在哈佛建立的這些友誼。而在你的朋友之中,我希望你們找個能分享你生活的另一半。我猜想你們中的一些人對此會會抱有懷疑,但是我表現出的感性毫無歉意。我說了直覺的重要性,以及除了直覺沒有更值得追隨的聲音。這是指在你遇到你一生最愛之前。我與妻子相戀並結婚的經曆就是如此,這成爲了我生活中最重要的“定義角色的時刻“。
愛、支持、勇氣、直覺。所有的這些都在你英雄的箭袋之中,但是英雄還需要一件東西——英雄需要一個去征服的壞人。而你們所有人都很走運,這個世界充滿了怪物。有種族歧視、恐同、種族仇恨、階級仇恨,還有政治仇恨和宗教仇恨。
還是孩子的時候,我因爲是猶太人而被起伏。這讓人喪氣,但是與我父母和祖父母曾經面對的事情比起來,這很平淡。我們都真正相信反猶太運動正在衰退,但我們錯了。在過去兩年間,有大約兩萬猶太人離開歐洲尋找生存之地。今年早些時候,我在以色列大使館聽奧巴馬總統陳述了一個悲慘的現實。他說:“反猶太運動的增勢發生在全球各地,這是我們需要面對的事實。我們不能否認它。“
我正視這一事實的強烈願望驅使我從1994年成立了大屠殺真相基金會,從那以後我們采訪了63個國家5.3萬名大屠殺的幸存者或目擊者,錄制了他們所有人的證詞。現在我們還在收集盧旺達、柬埔寨、亞美尼亞以及南京大屠殺的證詞。因爲我們永遠都不要忘記那些難以想象的罪惡會發生,並且時有發生。暴行也仍在發生。所以我們不能只去想“仇恨什麽時候才會停止?“而是“它是怎麽開始的?“。
我想我並不需要向一群紅襪隊的球迷解釋我們爲什麽會擁抱部落文化。但是在爲主隊加油之外,部落文化有它更陰暗的一面。本能地或者由基因決定,我們把世界分成“我們“和“他們“。所以棘手的問題是,我們所有人能共同發現“我們“?我們應當如何去做?仍舊有許多的工作要做,有的時候我甚至覺得這一事業還沒開始。這不僅僅是指反猶太運動擡頭,伊斯蘭恐懼症也在擡頭。因爲那些被歧視的人群之間是沒有區別的,不管他們是穆斯林、猶太人、邊境州裏的弱勢人群,或者是同性戀、雙性戀及變性者社群——他們遭受的都是同樣的仇恨。
對我來說,我想對你們也一樣,只能用更多的人性來對抗更多的仇恨。我們需要修護,用好奇來替代恐懼。不排斥異己,我們通過建立人與人的聯系來找到共同的“我們“。我們要相信我們是同一個部落的成員。我們對所有的人都要有同情心——哪怕對“友校“耶魯人也要如此。
我的兒子就是從耶魯畢業的,謝謝你…
但是你要確認你的同理心不只是你的感受。讓它是你采取行動的誘因。這是指參加投票、和平地抗議、爲那些不能爲自己發聲或者已經聲嘶力竭卻無法讓人注意的人發聲。讓你的良心大聲疾呼吧,如果是爲了服務于他們。
作爲爲他人服務的行動榜樣,你只需要看看這像好萊塢背景一般的紀念教堂。它的南牆上是哈佛校友們的名字,福斯特(603806,股吧)校長已經說過,他們是在第二次世界大戰中獻身的哈佛學生和教師們。697個人,他們曾經在你站著的地方逗留過,697條生命逝去。在1945年紀念教堂舉行的追思會上,柯南特校長紀念這些勇敢的人們,並號召哈佛人身上要“反射出他們壯舉的榮光“。
70年後,這句話仍然適用。因爲他們所做出的犧牲不是一代人就能報答的。每一代人都應該報答他們。就像我們永遠不該忘記那些惡行,我們永遠也不應當忘記那些爲自由而戰的人。所以當你離開這所學校進入世界,請繼續“反射出他們壯舉的榮光“,或者像《拯救大兵瑞恩》裏米勒上尉說的“別辜負大家“。
此外,請保持彼此的聯系,別避而不見。這可能不是你想從一個創作媒體的人這裏聽的一課,但是我們花越來越多的時間低頭看手機,而不是注視別人的眼睛。所以請原諒我,現在所有人,請找一雙眼睛深刻凝視。學生們、校友們都是,福斯特校長、你們所有人,轉向一位你不認識或者不熟悉的人,對視,僅此而已。你所感受到的使我們共同擁有的人性,混進去了一絲社交不適感。
如果你今天別的什麽都沒記住,我希望你能記住這一刻人與人之間的聯系。我希望過去四年中,你們經曆了很多的這樣的時刻。因爲從今天開始,你們會像前輩一樣,托舉起下一輩人。我在我的電影裏幻想過很多種不同的未來,但是你們會決定未來的實際樣子。我希望,這樣的未來充滿公正與和平。
最後,我祝願大家好萊塢式的大團圓結局成真。祝你們能跑過暴龍、抓住罪犯,爲了你們的父母,也別忘了像E.T.那樣常回家看看。謝謝。
(中文文稿來自界面)